PEMsource was started by Kelly D. Young, MD, MS when she was still program director for the pediatric emergency medicine fellowship at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. She has since retired, but is committed to keeping PEMsource an active site. If you subscribe, you will receive one PEM question or tip/trick per week. Please contact me with any questions, broken links, suggested resources at


Adapted from PEMsource includes links, educational content, algorithms, and clinical tools intended for use by healthcare professionals. The content on PEMsource do not constitute professional advice; clinicians who use the content on PEMsource should exercise their own clinical judgement when making individual patient care decisions. Non-medical users use the content on PEMsource at their own risk, and should always consult their physician or healthcare professional regarding medical concerns.

PEMsource has no conflicts of interest to report. I have no financial interests in any products, treatments, tests, procedures, etc. mentioned on the site.

I can’t say it better that this, so please read the disclaimer on MDcalc and all of this applies to PEMsource