PEM Source

Your source for all things Pediatric Emergency Medicine

All posts with tag: "gi"


What do you include in your GI cocktail for adolescents? [poll id="15"]
You are seeing a 5 year old with intermittent LLQ abdominal pain for a month. She is well appearing and has a benign abdominal exam. She is eating normally, not vomiting, and has no fever or diarrhea. The parents deny constipation or hard stools, but you suspect constipation is the diagnosis. [poll id="13"]
You are seeing a 6 week old ex-full term infant who is breastfeeding exclusively, having 6 wet diapers per day, 4 or more soft seedy stools per day, growing well, and no fever. Baby has been jaundiced since 1st week of life, and while it is not worse, parents come in because it is prolonged. Jaundice is to the level of the chest, and transcutaneous bili is 10. [poll id="12"]

PEM Questions

All of the following preclude expectant outpatient management in the case of an ingested button battery found by imaging to be in the stomach except: A. Co-ingestion of a magnet B. Child complains of abdominal pain C. Child has history of constipation D. Battery is > 15mm diameter and has been present > 4 days in a child < 6 years old E. N/A; ingested batteries should always be endoscopically removed
A 6yo boy is in the ED with his third episode of intussusception over the past year. Previous episodes presented with colicky abdominal pain and stool guaiac positive, and were successfully managed using barium enemas. He has been completely well between episodes. What imaging study is indicated to assess for the most common cause of a pathologic lead point? A. Complete ultrasound of the abdomen B. Computed tomography of the abdomen with oral and IV contrast C. Upper gastrointestinal study with small bowel follow-through D. Technetium-99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy E. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen

Tips and Tricks

What can you do if your patient is maxed out on ondansetron but still feels nauseated? A recent study in Annals EM found a positive treatment effect of deeply inhaling from a standard isopropyl alcohol pad held 2.5 cm from the patient's nose. Patients inhaled for 60 seconds at 0, 2, and 4 minutes (stopping if nausea resolved), and nausea was rated up to time 10 minutes. (Caveat: this study enrolled only adults). A 2012 Cochrane review also found isopropyl alcohol inhalation beneficial, although less so than standard antiemetic medications. Also, anecdotally, for dehydrated patients, rehydration and resolution of ketosis is thought to improve nausea and vomiting. For the grammar police out there, clarification of nauseated vs nauseous can be found here

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